Conjugation of verbs in Spanish

The conjugation of verbs in spanish is a challenging task for many individuals who decide to study and learn the language; however, it is an essential cornerstone for effective communication. Therefore, if you want to refine your language skills in Spanish, mastering verb conjugation is crucial. Today, we will explain everything about this topic and provide some tips to help you navigate the process easily.

What is verb conjugation?

Before defining such an important concept, it’s important to know that Spanish is the second most spoken language in the world. It originates from Latin and is well-structured, much like other languages of the same origin such as French, Catalan, and Italian. This is why they share many similarities when it comes to conjugating their verbs.

Now, verb conjugation involves the variation of a verb based on elements such as tense, number, person, mood, and aspect. In Spanish, verbs are conjugated to indicate when an action occurs, whether it is a habitual or future action, who performs it, and in what number (singular or plural).

As mentioned at the beginning, it may initially seem like a real challenge, but breaking it down into its key components will be the key to simplify and streamline the learning process.

Fundamental Elements of Verb Conjugation in Spanish


Verbal mood relates to the intention or purpose of the action. There are three main moods in Spanish:

  • Indicative: Used to express affirmations and objective facts. For example: “Ella trabaja en una oficina” (She works in an office).
  • Subjunctive: Expresses wishes, hypotheses, doubts, or possibilities. For example: “Espero que ella llegue tarde” (I hope she arrives late).
  • Imperative: Used to give orders, advice, or make requests. For example: “Cierra la ventana, por favor” (Close the window, please).


Verb conjugation in Spanish is done in singular or plural form, depending on whether it refers to one person or thing (singular) or several (plural). For example:

  • Singular: “Yo hablo español” (I speak Spanish).
  • Plural: “Ustedes hablan español” (You all speak Spanish).


Verbs also vary depending on who performs the action. Persons are divided into:

  • First person: Includes the speaker. For example: “Yo como hamburguesa” (I eat a hamburger).
  • Second person: Refers to the listener or others. For example: “Tú comes hamburguesa” (You eat a hamburger).
  • Third person: Talks about someone or something not participating in the conversation. For example: “Ella/El come hamburguesa” (She/He eats a hamburger).


Verbal aspect is the duration of the action. Some verbs have different conjugations to indicate continuous or completed actions. For example:

  • Continuous action: “Estoy comiendo hamburguesa” (I am eating a hamburger).
  • Completed action: “He comido hamburguesa” (I have eaten a hamburger).


Verbal tenses indicate when an action occurs. In Spanish, there are several tenses, each with a specific use:

Past Tenses

  • Preterite (Pretérito perfecto simple or indefinido): Used to express past actions that occurred at a specific moment and are considered finished. For example: “Ayer, hablé con Pablo” (Yesterday, I talked to Pablo).
  • Imperfect (Pretérito imperfecto): Used to describe past actions that occurred continuously or habitually, or to establish the background of a narration. For example: “Todos los días iba al parque” (Every day, I used to go to the park).
  • Pluperfect (Pretérito pluscuamperfecto): Used to express actions that occurred before other past actions. For example: “Cuando llegué a casa, ya había comido” (When I arrived home, I had already eaten).
  • Anterior (Pretérito anterior): Used in some literary contexts and older texts to express past actions that occurred before other past actions in a more distant past. For example: “Yo hube comido” (I had eaten).
  • Imperfect Subjunctive (Pretérito imperfecto del subjuntivo): Used to express hypothetical actions, wishes, suggestions, doubts, or unrealized conditions in the past. For example: “Esperaba que él hablara conmigo” (I hoped that he would talk to me) or “Si yo tuviera tiempo, viajaría por el mundo” (If I had time, I would travel the world).

Present Tenses

  • Simple Present (Presente simple): Indicates actions happening in the current moment. For example: “Yo canto rock” (I sing rock).
  • Present Continuous or Present Progressive (Presente continuo o presente progresivo): Used to express actions happening at the moment of speaking. For example: “Estoy trabajando en mi proyecto” (I am working on my project) or “Ellos están estudiando para el examen” (They are studying for the exam).
  • Present Perfect (Presente perfecto): Expresses an action that happened in the past but has relevance in the present. For example: “He visitado Colombia en varias ocasiones” (I have visited Colombia on several occasions) or “He trabajado en esa empresa durante 15 años” (I have worked in that company for 15 years) or “Acabo de comer” (I have just eaten).
  • Present Imperative (Presente de imperativo): Used to give direct orders, suggestions, advice, or instructions in the present moment. For example: “Cierra la puerta, por favor” (Close the door, please) or “Estudia para el examen” (Study for the exam).

Future Tenses

  • Simple Future (Futuro simple): Used to express actions that will happen in the future. For example: “Mañana viajaré a Colombia” (Tomorrow, I will travel to Colombia).
  • Future Perfect (Futuro compuesto): Used to express actions that will have occurred in the future before another point in future time. For example: “Para el próximo año, habremos completado el proyecto” (By next year, we will have completed the project) or “Cuando llegues a casa, ya habré cocinado la cena” (By the time you arrive home, I will have already cooked dinner).
  • Future Subjunctive (Futuro del subjuntivo): Used to express hypothetical actions, conjectures, or wishes that could happen in the future. For example: “Si yo ganare la lotería, viajaré por todo el mundo” (If I were to win the lottery, I would travel around the world) – expressing a conditional action in the future, “ganare” is the future subjunctive.

These are some of the most commonly used verb tenses, but there are others and specific verb conjugations in Spanish used in particular situations. The choice of the appropriate verb tense depends on the context and the point in time you want to express.

Tips to Improve Your Verb Conjugation

  • Study Verb Tenses: Take the time to study and understand the different verb tenses, learning when and how to use them.
  • Consistent Practice is Key: Dedicate time to practicing challenging exercises and sentences regularly.
  • Utilize Online Resources: Take advantage of online tools, such as verb conjugators, to help you practice.
  • Keep a Record: Maintain a log with sentences or phrases using verbs in different moods and tenses. This task will aid in effective conjugation recall.
  • Listen and Speak with Natives: Engaging with native speakers will help you familiarize yourself with conjugations in real-life contexts.
  • Read News and Books in Spanish: Reading exposes you to various grammatical structures and verb tenses.
  • Learn Auxiliary Verbs, such as “haber” and “ser”: Understand how these auxiliary verbs function and how they impact other verbs.

Understanding the components of verb conjugation in Spanish will assist you in communicating fluently and accurately. However, remember that consistent practice and familiarity with these elements are essential for improving your skills.

Thank you for being part of this community! See you in the next installment!


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